Avian Influenza

AISER as a NGO is coordinating the global response to human cases of H5N1 avian influenza and monitoring the corresponding threat of an influenza pandemic. Information on this page tracks the evolving situation and provides access to both technical guidelines and information useful for the general public. Ramaz Miraishvili Research Fellow

H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) and YouWhat is H1N1 (swine flu)?
H1N1 (referred to as "swine flu" early on) is a new influenza virus causing illness in people. This new virus was first detected in people in April 2009 in the United States. Other countries, including Mexico and Canada, have reported people sick with this new virus. This virus is spreading from person-to-person, probably in much the same way that regular seasonal influenza viruses spread.

No information available from Abkhazia(breakway province of Georgia) because of Russian millitary activity and resctriction of monitoring

The Ministry of Health of Indonesia has announced a new case of human infection of H5N1 avian influenza. A 3-year-old male from Wonogiri District, Central Java Province developed symptoms on 14 April, was hospitalized on 21 April and died on 23 April. Investigations into the source of his infection indicate exposure to sick and dead poultry.

Of the 133 cases confirmed to date in Indonesia, 108 have been fatal.

Avian Influenza: News update (Abkhazia Institute)

H5N1 in Poultry


An outbreak of H5N1 has been reported in the Russian republic of Primorsky in far eastern Russia. The outbreak in the village of Vozdvizhenka, located 110 km north of Vladlvostok, began on April 8 and included 21 chickens and 8 guineafowl that died over 2 days. According to the report to OIE, the probable source of the outbreak was attributed to hunted wild ducks or geese because viscera were fed to the farmer's poultry. Wild birds are shot each year in the territory to “control” bird flu and up to 2,000 birds are tested each year. So far none of them, including 150 wild ducks examined recently, have tested positive for H5N1. A ban on public hunting has been imposed in Primorsky. The farmer was briefly hospitalized with suspected bird flu but has been released after being tested, Russian Centre of Emergency Medicine said. Russia has not had an outbreak since December 2007. In the Foki village in the Ural district of Perm this week, 37,500 birds died. They were tested at a local laboratory and were negative for bird flu. The chief veterinarian of the Perm agriculture ministry said that the birds had died due to a technological problem with the farm’s ventilation system.


Assessment of Current Situation

The highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) epizootic (animal outbreak) in Asia, Europe, the Near East, and Africa is not expected to diminish significantly in the short term. It is likely that H5N1 virus infections among domestic poultry have become endemic in certain areas and that sporadic human infections resulting from direct contact with infected poultry and/or wild birds will continue to occur. So far, the spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been very rare, limited and unsustained. However, this epizootic continues to pose an important public health threat.

12 February 2008

The Ministry of Health of Indonesia has announced a new case of human infection of H5N1 avian influenza. A 15-year-old female from West Jakarta, Jakarta Province developed symptoms on 2 February, was hospitalized on 8 February and is currently in hospital in a critical condition. The case is the daughter of a previously confirmed case, the 38-year-old female from West Jakarta, Jakarta Province who developed symptoms on 23 January.

General Information

Based on concerns about highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus and its potential to cause illness in humans, CDC and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) have taken steps to prevent importation of birds and unprocessed bird products from countries with the virus in domestic poultry. The import restrictions do not apply to U.S.-origin pet birds which will be allowed to return upon entering a USDA quarantine facility for 30 days. The import restrictions also do not apply to processed bird products that have been rendered noninfectious. Countries affected by the CDC and USDA import restrictions are outlined in the following table:


Avian influenza outbreaks among poultry occur worldwide from time to time. Avian influenza viruses can be classified into low pathogenicity and highly pathogenic forms based on the severity of the illness they cause in poultry. Most strains of avian influenza are classified as low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) and cause few clinical signs in infected birds. In contrast, high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) causes a severe and extremely contagious illness and death among infected birds. LPAI poses no known serious threat to human health, however some strains of HPAI viruses can be infectious to people. Most recently, outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) among poultry have been associated with illness and death in humans in Asia, Africa, Europe, the Pacific, and the Near East. In the United States, from 1997 to 2005, there were 16 outbreaks of low pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (H5 and H7 subtype) and one outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N2) in poultry.

The Ministry of Health of Indonesia has announced two new cases of human H5N1 avian influenza infection. The first is a 29-year-old female from Tangerang City, Banten Province who developed symptoms on 22 January, was hospitalized on 28 January and died on 2 February. Investigations into the source of her infection are ongoing .

Ramaz MitaishviliBy Ramaz Mitaishvili
Glendale, CA
While all countries had generally been successful in preventing infectious diseases - with most diseases stable or in decline over the past decade and with, for example polio almost eliminated - there is no room for complacency. The majority of deaths in the Abkhazia are caused by non-infectious diseases such as cancer and heart disease. The threat posed by infections cannot be underestimated.